Absorption is a physical or chemical process in which atoms, molecules, or ions enter some bulk phase – gas, liquid, or solid material. This is a different process from adsorption, since molecules undergoing absorption are taken up by the volume, not by the surface (as in the case for adsorption). A more general term is sorption, which covers absorption, adsorption, and ion exchange.
Adsorption is a condition in which something takes in another substance. Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid to a surface. This process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent. This process differs from absorption, in which a fluid (the absorbate) permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid (the absorbent). Note that adsorption is a surface-based process while absorption involves the whole volume of the material. The term sorption encompasses both processes, while desorption is the reverse of adsorption. It is a surface phenomenon.
Amphoteric means that a molecule or ion can react as an acid as well as a base. The word is derived from the Greek word amphoteroi (ἀμφότεροι) meaning “both”.
Anions are atoms or groups of atoms that have gained electrons. Anions having more negatively charged electrons than positively charged protons, which makes them negatively charged.
Cations are positively charged ions that are formed when an atom loses one or more electrons during a chemical reaction.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas emitted from combustion processes. Nationally and, particularly in urban areas, the majority of CO emissions to ambient air come from mobile sources. CO can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body’s organs (like the heart and brain) and tissues. At extremely high levels, CO can cause death.
EPA first set air quality standards for CO in 1971. For protection of both public health and welfare, EPA set an 8-hour primary standard at 9 parts per million (ppm) and a 1-hour primary standard at 35 ppm. In a review of the standards completed in 1985, EPA revoked the secondary standards (for public welfare) due to a lack of evidence of adverse effects on public welfare at or near ambient concentrations. The last review of the CO NAAQS was completed in 1994 and the Agency chose not to revise the standards at that time.
Lead (Pb) is a metal found naturally in the environment as well as in manufactured products. The major sources of lead emissions have historically been from fuels in on-road motor vehicles (such as cars and trucks) and industrial sources. As a result of EPA’s regulatory efforts to remove lead from on-road motor vehicle gasoline, emissions of lead from the transportation sector dramatically declined by 95 percent between 1980 and 1999, and levels of lead in the air decreased by 94 percent between 1980 and 1999. Today, the highest levels of lead in air are usually found near lead smelters. The major sources of lead emissions to the air today are ore and metals processing and piston-engine aircraft operating on leaded aviation gasoline.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known as “oxides of nitrogen,” or “nitrogen oxides (NOx).” Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid. EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standard uses NO2 as the indicator for the larger group of nitrogen oxides. NO2 forms quickly from emissions from cars, trucks and buses, power plants, and off-road equipment. In addition to contributing to the formation of ground-level ozone, and fine particle pollution, NO2 is linked with a number of adverse effects on the respiratory system.
EPA first set standards for NO2 in 1971, setting both a primary standard (to protect health) and a secondary standard (to protect the public welfare) at 0.053 parts per million (53 ppb), averaged annually. The Agency has reviewed the standards twice since that time, but chose not to revise the annual standards at the conclusion of each review. In January 2010, EPA established an additional primary standard at 100 ppb, averaged over one hour. Together the primary standards protect public health, including the health of sensitive populations – people with asthma, children, and the elderly. No area of the country has been found to be out of compliance with the current NO2 standards.
Ozone is found in two regions of the Earth’s atmosphere – at ground level and in the upper regions of the atmosphere. Both types of ozone have the same chemical composition (O3). While upper atmospheric ozone protects the earth from the sun’s harmful rays, ground level ozone is the main component of smog.
Troposheric, or ground level ozone, is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Ozone is likely to reach unhealthy levels on hot sunny days in urban environments. Ozone can also be transported long distances by wind. For this reason, even rural areas can experience high ozone levels.
High ozone concentrations have also been observed in cold months, where a few high elevation areas in the Western U.S. with high levels of local VOC and (NOx) emissions have formed ozone when snow is on the ground and temperatures are near or below freezing. Ozone contributes to what we typically experience as “smog” or haze, which still occurs most frequently in the summertime, but can occur throughout the year in some southern and mountain regions.
Ground level ozone- what we breathe- can harm our health. Even relatively low levels of ozone can cause health effects. People with lung disease, children, older adults, and people who are active outdoors may be particularly sensitive to ozone. Children are at greatest risk from exposure to ozone because their lungs are still developing and they are more likely to be active outdoors when ozone levels are high, which increases their exposure. Children are also more likely than adults to have asthma.
Ozone also affects sensitive vegetation and ecosystems, including forests, parks, wildlife refuges and wilderness areas. In particular, ozone harms sensitive vegetation, including trees and plants during the growing season. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of (NOx) and VOC.
Under the Clean Air Act, EPA has established health and environmentally protective standards for ozone in the air we breathe. EPA and others have instituted a variety of multi-faceted programs to meet these standards. Throughout the country, additional programs are being put into place to cut (NOx) and VOC emissions from vehicles, industrial facilities, and electric utilities. Programs are also aimed at reducing pollution by reformulating fuels and consumer/commercial products, such as paints and chemical solvents that contain VOC. Voluntary and innovative programs encourage communities to adopt practices, such as carpooling, to reduce harmful emissions.
“Particulate matter,” also known as particle pollution or PM, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. Particle pollution is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles.
The size of particles is directly linked to their potential for causing health problems. EPA is concerned about particles that are 10 micrometers in diameter or smaller because those are the particles that generally pass through the throat and nose and enter the lungs. Once inhaled, these particles can affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects. EPA groups particle pollution into two categories:
- “Inhalable coarse particles,” such as those found near roadways and dusty industries, are larger than 2.5 micrometers and smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter.
- “Fine particles,” such as those found in smoke and haze, are 2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller. These particles can be directly emitted from sources such as forest fires, or they can form when gases emitted from power plants, industries and automobiles react in the air.
PM10 and PM2.5: PM10 particles are small enough to be inhaled and accumulate in the respiratory system. Now, in addition to monitoring PM10, scientists and technicians monitor fine particles called PM2.5, these particles measure 2.5 microns in diameter or smaller or about 1/10,000 of an inch. These tiny particles are about 30 times smaller than the width of a hair on your head! These tiny particles are small enough to get inhaled past our defensive nose hairs and into our lungs. But it doesn’t stop there! PM2.5 can pass from our lungs into our blood supply and be carried throughout our bodies.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known as “oxides of sulfur.” The largest sources of (SO2) emissions are from fossil fuel combustion at power plants (73%) and other industrial facilities (20%). Smaller sources of (SO2) emissions include industrial processes such as extracting metal from ore, and the burning of high sulfur containing fuels by locomotives, large ships, and non-road equipment. (SO2) is linked with a number of adverse effects on the respiratory system.
EPA first set standards for (SO2) in 1971. EPA set a 24-hour primary standard at 140 ppb and an annual average standard at 30 ppb (to protect health). EPA also set a 3-hour average secondary standard at 500 ppb (to protect the public welfare). In 1996, EPA reviewed the (SO2) NAAQS and chose not to revise the standards.
In 2010, EPA revised the primary (SO2) NAAQS by establishing a new 1-hour standard at a level of 75 parts per billion (ppb). EPA revoked the two existing primary standards because they would not provide additional public health protection given a 1-hour standard at 75 ppb.